Aggregate: A material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or iron blast furnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form concrete.
Air content: The volume of air voids in freshly mixed concrete, expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the mix.
Air entraining agent: A chemical admixture that entraps microscopic air bubbles in concrete, resulting in improved freeze-thaw resistance and workability.
Bleeding: The separation of water from the concrete mix, resulting in the formation of a surface layer of water on the freshly placed concrete.
Blending: The process of combining different materials or ingredients to produce a homogenous mixture.
Bond: The adhesion between the concrete and another material, such as reinforcement or a formwork.
Cement paste: The mixture of cement and water in concrete.
Cement: A fine powder made from limestone and clay, mixed with water to form a paste that hardens over time and is used to bind other materials together.
Clinker: The intermediate product produced during the manufacture of cement, consisting of small, hard, nodular lumps that are ground to a fine powder to make cement.
Compressive strength: The ability of a material to resist crushing loads.
Concrete: A construction material consisting of cement, water, sand, and aggregate, which is mixed together and left to harden.
Crack: A fissure or rupture in a material, often caused by stress or the expansion and contraction of the material due to temperature changes.
Crusher: A machine used to crush materials, such as rock, ore, or concrete, into smaller pieces.
Crushing: The process of breaking down a material into smaller pieces by using mechanical force.
Cure: The process of maintaining proper moisture and temperature conditions during the early stages of concrete hardening to ensure proper strength development.
Dispersion: The breaking up of a material into smaller particles, often by the addition of a liquid.
Finishing: The process of smoothing and compacting the surface of freshly placed concrete.
Formwork: A temporary structure used to hold freshly placed concrete in place until it hardens.
Grinding: The process of reducing the size of a material by using abrasive action.
Grout: A thin, fluid mixture of cement, water, and sand used to fill voids or seal joints.
Hydraulic cement: A type of cement that sets and hardens when mixed with water, and can also set and harden underwater.
Kiln: A large, cylindrical furnace used for the production of cement, lime, and other materials through the process of calcination.
Leaching: The removal of soluble substances from a material by the percolation of water through the material.
Lime: A calcium-containing inorganic mineral composed primarily of calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide.
Limestone: A sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate, which is used as a raw material in the manufacture of cement.
Mix design: The process of determining the proportions of cement, water, aggregate, and admixtures in a concrete mix to achieve a desired strength and workability.
Mortar: A mixture of cement, water, and sand used as a bonding agent between bricks, blocks, or stones.
Pumpability: The ability of a concrete mix to flow easily through a pumping system.
Reinforcement: A material, such as steel bars or fibers, used to increase the tensile strength of concrete.
Scaling: The flaking or chipping of the surface of concrete due to the action of freezing and thawing or other environmental factors.
Set: The point at which concrete becomes hard enough to support its own weight and resist deformation.
Slag: A byproduct of the iron and steel industry, consisting of a glassy, granular material formed when molten slag is cooled rapidly.
Slump: A measure of the workability of concrete, determined by the height to which a standard cone of freshly mixed concrete will slump under its own weight.
Strength: The ability of a material to withstand external loads or forces.
Tension: The state of being stretched or pulled.